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港媒称内地二线城市楼市将复苏 杭州等地房价或上涨

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 年末冲刺 住房供求面积推至年内最高值 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

家居行业五大安全隐患曝光 6企业发“良心”倡议

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

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有了正确的工具,你就会发现自己的工作生活变得更加高效。(财富中文网)
2015年最差职业
Ma Nan补充报道
“一个12岁的小男孩可不想在自己事业刚刚开始的时候就背负10万欧元的账单。”
The programme has enabled me to take a quantum leap in my career and prepared me to take on a strategic C-level [chief-level] role right after graduation, said another alumnus.
Today, the Financial Times reveals the fake gross domestic product data routinely released from many northern Chinese regions. There, solid alternative evidence suggests the authorities have “smoothed” the economic growth figures. They artificially boosted growth figures between 2012 and 2016, masking a real downturn, and last year covered up a genuine recovery.

Movie buffs will soon be able to celebrate with a visual feast at the Beijing International Film Festival, where nearly 500 high quality films will be shown.
The government is keen to encourage lending to small and medium-sized borrowers, many of whom do not have credit histories. Analysts estimate the number of Chinese consumers who are financially active but without access to credit to be 500m.
狄娜莎(Tinashe)与德文戴·西尼斯(Devonté Hynes),《打赌》(Bet), RCA
苹果越来越需要有人去抵挡和应对攻击者以及监管者(苹果在欧洲遭到税务调查),而库克对人、策略和执行——而不是产品——的重视终于开始看起来像个优势。
The sales volume peaks at around 15 million per day, with nearly 700 tickets sold in every second.

Footnotes

  • 市场调查:不要盲目跟风投资艺术涂料
  • Some industries will likely pick up faster than others. Industries such as construction and manufacturing will probably begin to hire sooner. Retail, tourism, and hospitality, which depend entirely on consumer spending, will probably be among the last to recover.

n. 沼地,极多,回转 n. 大量,许多 v. 使转,扭
n. 莴苣,生菜,纸币
Neneh Cherry “Blank Project” (Smalltown Supersound)
今年2月的时候,玛蒂与希雅和克里斯汀?韦格(Kristen Wiig)一起担任2015格莱美音乐颁奖典礼(Grammy Awards)的表演嘉宾。当时金?卡戴珊(Kim Kardashian)和坎耶?韦斯特(Kanye West)坐在前排观看了这个表演。
[l?un]
In addition, the top-ranking cities typically performed poorly in costs and culture and lifestyle. China's "cities of opportunity" continue to face challenges when it comes to building cities that satisfy the needs of the populace and provide a high quality of life.

营收300亿以上房企可发债!调控政策要变?你想多了

References

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